Even before Cold War anxieties kicked in in the s, there was a growing sentiment among educators that the high-school curriculum needed an upgrade. Standards needed to be raised and teaching methods rethought. If more kids planned on going to college, homework would have to be part of the equation.
The response from the U. And homework was front and center. Just as the academic excellence movement promoted a deeper and more hands-on approach to math and science in the classroom, homework at all levels had to be more than memorization and mindless drills. It needed to promote creative problem-solving and analytical thinking. The NDEA investment had immediate effects.
By , 23 percent of high-school juniors reported doing two or more hours of homework a night, nearly twice as many as in , the year of Sputnik. By , the percentage of high-schoolers doing two or more hours of homework a day dropped back below 10 percent.
There was another attempt in the early s to revive homework as part of a second-wave academic excellence movement under the Reagan administration. A report called A Nation at Risk warned in Cold-War terms of the potential fallout from a failed education system. Schlossman says that this second academic excellence push did little to move the needle significantly on homework, flattening out at around 12 percent of high-schoolers clocking two or more hours a day by the mids.
While that was up from an average of 6. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. This Day In History.
After a period of shunning homework at the turn of the 20th century, the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik 1 spurred an urgent U. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Contemporary Review , , Oxford: Oxford University Press, Report of the Commissioners on Secondary Education. Former ed. The Yearbook of Education London: Evans, First Year. Containing easy lessons on the regular accidence. London: Macmillan.
EVE, Henry Weston A School German Grammar. London: Nutt. Das Deutschlandbild der Iren Heidelberg: Winter. In Graham Jefcoate, William A. Hildesheim: Olms, Bosbach, C. Hiery ed. Modern Languages in the Curriculum. Revised edition. Cambridge: CUP. Rugby since Arnold. A History of Rugby School since A Quick-Reference German Grammar.
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There was considerable resistance to the transition to comprehensives. Elementary and Secondary Education. The latter served dependents of military personnel, while the Guam Institute was a comprehensive private primary and secondary school up to twelfth grade attended by more affluent Chamorros. Shortages of food and coal, which weakened teachers and pupils and led to school closings, were most severe in Central Europe due to the British blockade. After all, inadequate teaching of German could be a serious problem: Fischer cites the case of one school in Ireland in where 27 of 34 pupils from a single school failed their German examination. The rule was lifted by an emergency measure in but did little to ameliorate the burden.
German in the United Kingdom: Issues and opportunities. London: CILT, In Cambridge Local Examination Commercial Cambridge: Printed for the Syndics at the University Press, Held in Cambridge University Library, Cam. Frankfurt: Lang. New York: Dutton. Modern Languages , 1, Cambridge University Library Cam. German in the United Kingdom. Problems and Prospects.
CILT: London, German in the UK: problems and prospects. A Public School German Primer comprising a first reader, grammar, and exercises, with some remarks on German pronunciation and full vocabularies. In Letters , vol. A primary German course comprising object lessons, a first reader, grammar and exercises, with some remarks on German pronunciation and the relation between German and English and full vocabularies. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford Uuniversity Press.
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The elements of German grammar. London: printed for C. The history of language learning in Britain is still very little studied. Amongst somewhat more recent work, the survey by Hawkins is the closest to an overview of the history of modern language teaching for the British context, and is particularly useful for its discussion of the late nineteenth-century reform movement and its limited impact on teaching Hawkins Ortmanns deals specifically with the history of German teaching in Great Britain up to the year and is an invaluable source of facts and figures.