Indian story from puran which ensures Nicotine De-addiction

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The new comers settled to the east of the older site.

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On the older mound, they dug up only large and deep pits to dump the broken pottery or refuse, or for making kilns for baking pottery or clay nodules. Bricks as building material had gone out of use. Instead, the house walls were made of well levitated fine earth.

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The sides were usually plastered over with the self-same earth but often mixed with cow-dung or husk or both. Even the house floors were made of the same earth successively. It represents the northernmost identified site of the Harappan culture. The excavations at the site yielded a three fold sequence of cultures with two sub-periods in Period 1.

In sub-Period 1A, the site was under occupation by the Harappans, as represented by the finds of some typical Indus pottery, triangular terracotta cakes and a double- spiral headed copper pin of West Asian type. From the unstratified levels, an unfinished seal-stone testifying to the Harappan affiliation of the site, was also obtained.

An inscription ot ten large sized signs of Harappan script are found in Dholavira-the oldest I 2 linfon of Arvhilrcnttv and Ancient finUthny. They constructed a fonnidahlc fortification as thick as about 11 meters at the base around the settlement.

The houses were made of molded mud bricks of standardized sizes providing the ratio T he face of u was plastered over with fine paste of white and pink clays at least thirteen tunes. I and II show temporal and cultural affinity with Amri 11B. Nausharo ID and Kot-Diji l. A picture of a rapidly growing society is evident. North gate and east gate are shown in the Figures 2.

Stage III is a very creative period when small settlements grew into large town having two fortified major divisions in addition to annexes and water reservoirs-all within peripheral wall. The existing fortified settlement was. These two sub-divisions have been designated as castle and belly respectively. During the end of this stage the entire settlement witnessed natural catastrophe. Large scale repairs were made and significant changes were done in the town planning.

In the stage IV among most impressive items are the elements of functional pillars and free standing columns made out of locally available limestone. The stage V is characterized by the general decline particularly in the maintenance of the city.

It is more vividly reflected in the citadel. The other items such as pottery, seals, weights, etc, continued in use. This stage was followed by a temporary desertion of the site, perhaps not lasting more than a few decades before the Stage VI ushered in. Stage VI presents a state of transformed Harappa culture which is so widely distributed in Gujrat. New ceramic traditions coming from the sides of Sind.

Rajasthan and other parts of Gujrat made appearance. The one time city shrank into smaller town which became confined to the citadel and the southern margin of the middle town where they delimited it by raising a wall of entirely different workmanship. It is surmised that having lived there for about a century, the late Harappans of Stage VI abandoned the settlement.

The desertion that followed was certainly a longer one, but its umexan not be ascertained. The new comers N. All the urban attributes became conspicuous by their absence. The tank area was very big approximately m in length along he southern and northern margins, while ihe width varied from 70 to 80 ni. In the west, the tank area was about m. In the southeastern area, for example, the reservoir covered about 5 ha, the largest within the wall area.

The walls acted as effective bunds. Both faces ofthe wall were plastered with fairly water repelling sticky clay. Certain areas mostly on the exterior lace, were veneered with hammer-dressed stones. As the city was on the slope bunds were constructed across the width of the tanks to reduce the pressure of the stored water body on the city walls.

In the limes of rainfall, they enabled the water to get stored in selected tanks instead of being spread out over a large area and reduced quickly by evaporation and seepage.

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In the area designated as the citadel, an interesting network of drains, both small and large, was discovered. Most of the drains intersect each other and ultimately link up with an arterial drain. The entire drainage system could have been set up to assiduously conserve every drop of rain water that fell in the city. The water must have been a treasured commodity in an area lacking in the source of surface water.

It was subjected to frequent floods as it was close to the junction of Sabarmati and Bhogavo rivers. Nevertheless it has the advantage of transportation through both the rivers. Due to its being a low natural mound, it had been reinforced with mud and mud bricks against the annual floods on more than one occasion. Five phases of occupation was observed here. Out of this four have been mature Harappan culture.

The settlement was rectangular on plan and consisted of two parts: citadel and lower town. Ofthe structures, exposed within the citadel, the warehouse is, perhaps, more noteworthy. Built on a4. Burnt clay ceilings of normal Indus type presumably fallen from the stored bales, had been recovered from the ducts between the blocks.

The lower town contained, apart from the residential sectors, a bazaar, and industrial area. The most individualistic structure brought In light by the hido-Aryun Period 15 w. I he structure is thought to have been a dock, lor berthing the ships. I lie occurrence of a circular seal of Persian Gulf style at the site points to the existence of maritime trade will Gulf region. Sub-period IA: It showed a late Harappan settlement on mud platforms. One such mud platform, measuring 4. After an accumulation of a deposit of 0. Sub-period II: It is marked by the coming together of the late Harappan people.

In the early stage of this occupation the settlement was faced by another Hood. However the people continued to live at the site. Three phases of the structural activity have been noticed in this period. First, the people were living in round and semi-circular huts of wattle and daub. In the second phase, a roomcd mud-walled house with a corridor in between having two sets of rooms and a courtyard in the eastern side is available.

Meenakshisundaram T P, A History of Tamil Literature, Annamalainagar, Annamalai University, 1965

In the final phase of structural activity, houses made of burnt bricks were built as indicated by a scatter of such bricks which came up due to polishing activity Figure 2. Oval shaped structures are available which had a domical roof and perhaps appear to be connected with some religious practices.

It revealed a five fold sequence starting from the late Harappan period sub-divisible into three structural phases having mud brick houses in lower phase and the circular huts in the upper levels. The first Paleolithic sites in India were discovered in the Soan valley in Punjab.

Pre-Soan: characterized by flakes and hand axes of Abbevilliam, Clacto and Acheulian types.

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Middle Soan: represented by chapping tools and bifacial hand axes similar to those found in Africa and Western Europe. Late Soan: with implements notable lor their more carelul finish and the absence of hand axes. The Paleolithic seems to have been followed by a Mesolithic period, producing microliths ol Hint or semi precious stones, which are found in many parts of India. The two major cities of the civilization appear to have been Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.

Both are distinguished by advanced urban planning. The major streets are 33 feet wide and run north-south intersecting subordinate ones, running east west, at right angles to the streets. The most dramatic characteristic of the two cities and to a degree of other Harappan sites is a commanding citadel.

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At Mohenjo-daro it is a massive, mud-filled brick embankment which rises 43 feet above the lower city. On its summit are the remains of several impressive structures of which the most prominent is the so called Great Bath, Figure 2. The pool surrounded by a paved courtyard is 39 ft. It was entered at each end by steps and its bottom of sawed and fitted brick was sealed watertight by bitumen. On the citadel to the most of the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro are the remains of twenty- seven brick foundations, which have been identified as remains of a sophisticated granary complex.

The citadel at Harappa also displays a Great Bath and a granary but of slightly different design. The uniqueness of the citadel structures and their physical relationship to the lower city at Harappa and Mohen-jo-daro hint at a social and religious structure with precedents for later Indian society. Assuredly ihe height of the citadel also had a practical purpose, in that it remained dry during seasonal floods. It is important to remember that Mohen-jo-daro shows nine levels of occupation towering ov er 30 feet above the present flood plain.

These nine levels represent a period of more than seven hundred years. Recent boring have also disclosed that an additional 39 feet of occupational level exists below the present flood plain and these illuminate a continuing struggle with flooding which occurred into antiquity. A number of these lower levels predate the earliest level at Harappa. It consists of wheel turned items of wide variety which show the consistent characteristics and standards of an organized manufacturing system.

Among the various shapes created, there are huge tall decorated storage jars, streamers, bowls with pedestal, pointed globets which stood in the ground and many other utilitarian forms Figure 2. It is expected that the kiln fired bricks were joined with the mortar mainly consisting of red lime mixed with white lime and Indus civilization had contacts with Mesopotamia.

This is confirmed by the discovery of the seals similar to those of the Indus Valley at Telio, kish and to Elamite or Sumariun seals at Mohen-jo-daro. This civilization disappeared between and B.